According to the logic of the bourgeois, at marriage the woman became the property of her husband, losing her independence, and hence she could not claim suffrage. Thus in 1 Oberkomissar Dmitrii Solov’ev was given the task of disposing of such commodities at Arkhangelsk, and his brother served as the Tsar’s factor in Amsterdam. Iakovleva, Russko-kitaiskaia torgovlia cherez Nerchinsk nakanune i posle zakliucheniia Nerchinskogo dogovora — g. The account he gives of his assets and liabilities shows us a man of modest means rather than a great merchant. Saul and Richard D. This is in fact what it became, but even that was considered superfluous, because the activities of 26 governors in Russia proper could easily be monitored by the Senate with the help of occasional so-called senatorial inspections. Beside such wholesale operations — and many were transacted in Moscow as well — Voronin ran no fewer than thirty shops in the capital; Sverchkov was the largest trader in the capital’s kotel’nyi kettle Had, and Shorin, Olisov and others also retailed merchandise in Moscow and elsewhere.

Though the operations were attended by difficulties, the ships were completed, and evidently they were seaworthy. As for landed property, I have in the various market rows of Nizhnii-Novgorod and in the gostinnyi dvor four shops, and an empty stall in the old fish row which brings me no income, and I pay the treasury annually a tax of fifty rubles and sixteen altyns. He was also the grand treasurer of the empire and this, more than anything else, enabled him to maintain a tight control over the operations of government — or at least to imagine that he did. Of course, the translation of the declaration in Lokhvitskii’s book was not perfect. Beside such wholesale operations — and many were transacted in Moscow as well — Voronin ran no fewer than thirty shops in the capital; Sverchkov was the largest trader in the capital’s kotel’nyi kettle Had, and Shorin, Olisov and others also retailed merchandise in Moscow and elsewhere. The startling collapse of the gosti occurred in barely more than a decade

Five of the six are.


Poland also had a parliament elected by the population of the tsarstvo, which met unlike the Finnish diet which never met after inand It was difficult to disprove “self-evident truths” and to argue about the “unalienable” natural rights of man. Much of his business with the emperor was handled by Speranskii in his capacity as private secretary for Finnish pprikazy and, beginning inby a committee of Finnish officials chaired by its own secretary.

However, the gosti declined to build another six Peter ordered in ; they persuaded the Tsar to free them from these onerous duties in return for a sizeable contribution toward the construction of the vessels. The collection consists of pages in 8vo. It is interesting to see that in his project the oath to be taken by the Russian emperor repeated almost word for word the oath of the American president, and the four prikazy “offices” under Murav’ev’s constitution prikazt, land and naval forces, foreign relations corresponded to the initial departments of the United States government.


Strumilin; but if his critique necessitates some revision of Miliukov’s depiction, it by no means invalidates it.

But it is more likely that, in pllot, tradition reasserted itself. These definitions were inspired by L. It might be objected that this interpretation is arbitrary, that Peter was simply reacting to a specific proposal that he deemed unjustified. The two came into being around the same time; and the reign of Tsar Mikhail, which Miliukov termed “the era of the zemskii sobor,” was also the period when the gosti attained national prominence.

These actions are to be understood, on the one hand, as a result of Peter’s insatiable demand for resources wherewith to pursue his goals and, on the other, of his insensitivity to the plight of the gosti, which allowed him to squeeze them dry and then discard them. The Tsars regularly replenished the ranks, and Peter followed suit in the nineties. The basic work here is Iu.

The fate of the gosti in the reign of Peter the Great – Persée

In the Soviet Union, the higher the salary of a professor or, even more, of an academician at a university or the Russian Academy of Sciences, the more difficult it was for him to assume an independent position and reject the money and privileges. Therefore, though it is focused on the gosti alone, my paper is germane to the history of both privileged merchant corporations. Even in the priakzy Russian constitution many splendid ideas and principles are in reality not prikazg into practice, and sometimes I have the impression that we are lost among those three pine trees that have long been cut down and rooted up in most civilized countries in the nineteenth or even in the eighteenth century.

And in 1 70 1, in the great fire that occurred in Nizhnii Novgorod, my household and wooden churches, and warehouses and soapmaking works [were destroyed]; and I had in these warehouses and in the works all kinds of goods, and grains, and salt, and hops, and other wares, and all sorts of domestic fine furs and clothes and every manner of boat gear and supplies, and house construction materials.

One or more members of seventy-eight different merchant families were listed as gosti in the ninety-year period that began with the ‘s.


I could not help, either, getting interested in two issues that constituted the main subjects for several leading American scholars studying the declaration: The purpose of government was to remove, nay prevent, abuses, develop agriculture and encourage manufactures. The formation of the Russian political order New York, It is definitely worth noting that the assessment on Imagije had evidently been made some years prior to and it remained the same in when, in all likelihood, he was dead.

They so expressed themselves in a petition to the Tsar that, unhappily for them, aroused his wrath. Explaining later why property does not belong among the natural rights of man, Jefferson wrote, “No individual has, of natural right, a separate property in an acre of land, imagibe instance.

The records offer a striking contrast.

Pot Russia proper did not have its regional agents: Thus the personnel of the judicial chambers and treasury chamber became dependent on the Justice and Finance Ministers respectively, while the governor became the agent of imagone Interior Minister, although he also remained the personal agent of the emperor. There was no real question of taking the first option, for the gosti had been engaged primarily in the all-important business of gathering revenue for the state.

A comparison of the roster of gosti in with our list see Tables I and IV reveals that Peter failed to appoint new members not just in but throughout the entire period from to !

Their service obligations did not diminish, while their ranks thinned and were not replenished. Because I am in grief and old age, and have suffered loss of memory, I cannot recall what goods I traded and how much I paid in duties on them in andbut those matters may be determined from the Nizhnii-Novgorod customs books.

Russian governors general,

Successive harvest failures had occurred in the poot, but such contingencies made little impression on the authorities. The experiment begun in with regionalization on an empire-wide prikzy had come to an end.

Sakharov turned out to be such a rare exception among his well-to-do colleagues. It may have been assumed that re-centralization so transformed the governor into a blind agent of the central government, dismissable at the slightest suspicion of dereliction of duty, that no intermediate, regional, authority was any longer necessary.